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Just a note of caution: Sometimes if you have data that is exponentially trending then you might need to take the log of the data first before differencing it. Typically, is set at 0. I wish to acknowledge especially Geo rey Grimmett, Frank Kelly and Doug Kennedy. The sample space is the same as before, but the probability space is different for each value of p. **Download PDF version of all available notes here** - GCE O Level Singapore-Cambridge Notes. Introduction to Statistics and Data Our textbook is based on lecture notes from a course given to master physics Critical Region and Signiﬁcance Level. [Note: There is a distinction between causal inference and statistical inference. 2 The Advanced Level exaAdvanced Level (AS+A2) mination is in two parts: Advanced Subsidiary (AS) – 50% of the total award; a second examination, called A2 – 50% of the total award. 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